Wednesday, August 26, 2020

List of "Lost" LONE RANGER Radio Broadcasts (pre-1950)

Just as "Nitrate won't wait" became the rallying cry for film archivists, "Acetate won't wait" has become the mantra for collectors of old-time radio. Widely used for three decades (1930s through the 1950s), then slowly replaced with magnetic tape and other formats, radio broadcasts featuring comedy, music and drama were preserved for both commercial and historical purposes. Fans of old-time radio programs, and fans of The Lone Ranger in general, are fully aware of the 2,600 radio broadcasts from 1938 to 1954 that were preserved thanks to this format. Over 2,000 of those radio episodes have been released commercially thanks to companies like Radio Spirits, which commercially releases CD sets periodically through the months through licensing agreements. For over almost two decades I have purchased those Lone Ranger sets from Radio Spirits and have built a large shrine in my house. 



Due to their rarity, some acetate discs can command high prices at auction but those "record prices" are often the exceptions to the rule. Brian Epstein's collection of Beatles acetates fetched between $1,000 and $10,000 per disc, and an acetate of Elvis Presley's "That's All Right" sold for $82,393. When it comes to The Lone Ranger radio program, the broadcasts were preserved on vinyl pressings for syndication purposes, not acetate discs, so they would never fetch those kind of prices. Yet, there are collectors who mistakenly believe what they have is worth thousands of dollars. The average sale price for a set of two Lone Ranger discs is about $35 on eBay, more depending on whether the recording is rare or not. And it seems no one ever bids on Lone Ranger vinyl pressings that ask for more than $60 as a starting bid. (AFRS renditions of The Lone Ranger, also on vinyl pressings, appear to go for about $5 to $10 each on eBay.)


All of which emphasizes the importance of supporting companies like Radio Spirits. Considering the price of a Radio Spirits box set (five of them pictured above) retails less than $40 each, and you receive 20 half-hour radio programs in a box set, which comes to less than $2 per recording, you can understand why people choose to purchase the CDs versus collecting the vinyl pressings. 


The following is an official list of "lost" radio programs from 1938 to 1949. This list was compiled from multiple box sets, CDs and audio cassette albums that I purchased over the past two decades -- in short, these are the only episodes I am missing in my personal collection and it appears no one has a copy of these. Without such a list, collectors would never know if what they have is truly rare or not. Lists like these were created for other programs and often resulted in a few episodes being discovered because a collector had one and never knew it was a rare or lost recording.


The episode numbers and broadcast dates are listed below. Take note: these are the episode numbers, not transcription disc numbers. To avoid confusion, please go by the broadcast date. For completists, this list will give collectors cause to seek out recordings they do not have. For those who want to know the value of extant Lone Ranger transcriptions, these are the episodes that would more than likely generate larger bids on auction. But if someone holds a "lost" show at ransom prices, consider walking away. And if someone claims to have a lost program but will not verify authenticity, also consider walking away. As shocking as this advice might sound to a few, in retrospect there are already over 2,000 radio broadcasts available to listen to.


In the process of reading all of the radio scripts for The Lone Ranger, and documenting the plot summaries (my episode guide is more than 1,000 pages and still under construction), I can easily verify a recording if someone claims to have one listed below. Verification is essential before removing an entry from the list. With unscrupulous mp3 vendors duplicating existing audio files and renaming them with fake broadcast dates and titles, I will not remove an episode from this list simply because someone claims to have it. If you send me a recording and it turns out not to be a "lost" episode on the list, as a courtesy I will provide you with the correct information so you can catalog your inventory appropriately.


A second list will be posted in October for the "lost" episodes from 1950 to 1954.

 

This list will be updated as recordings are discovered and verified. Do you have any of these?


Episode #                         Broadcast Date                       

Episode #793-18, Broadcast February 25, 1938 *

Episode #794-19, Broadcast February 28, 1938 *

Episode #796-21, Broadcast March 4, 1938 *

Episode #798-23, Broadcast March 9, 1938 *

Episode #802-27, Broadcast March 18, 1938 *

Episode #808-33, Broadcast April 1, 1938 *

Episode #809-34, Broadcast April 4, 1938 *

Episode #811-36, Broadcast April 8, 1938 *

Episode #814-39, Broadcast April 15, 1938 *

Episode #843-68, Broadcast June 22, 1938 *

Episode #849-74, Broadcast July 6, 1938 *

Episode #893-118, Broadcast October 17, 1938 *

Episode #900-125, Broadcast November 2, 1938 *

Episode #912-137, Broadcast November 30, 1938 *

Episode #913-138, Broadcast December 2, 1938 *

Episode #947-172, Broadcast February 20, 1939 *

Episode #950-175, Broadcast February 27, 1939 *

Episode #974-199, Broadcast April 24, 1939 *

Episode #975-200, Broadcast April 26, 1939 * 

Episode #976-201, Broadcast April 28, 1939 * 

Episode #977-202, Broadcast May 1, 1939 * 

Episode #980-205, Broadcast May 8, 1939 * 

Episode #1083-306, Broadcast January 3, 1940 *

Episode #1086-309, Broadcast January 10, 1940  (supposedly exists)

Episode #1137-360, Broadcast May 8, 1940 *  (supposedly exists)

Episode #1145-367, Broadcast May 27, 1940 *


Episodes above did not contain a script title. Episodes listed below have script titles.


1207-428  "The Trail to Nowhere"  (October 18, 1940)

1214-434  "Plotters in Murder"  (November 4, 1940)                  

1300-517  [Title Not Known]  (May 23, 1941)

1323-540  "Revenge Rides the Wagon Train"  (July 16, 1941)                           

1328-545  "Rustlers at Breakneck Canyon"  (July 28, 1941)

1337-553  "Water Makes Trouble"  (August 18, 1941)

1338-554  "Yellow Boss"  (August 20, 1941)

1339-555  "The Race"  (August 22, 1941)

1392-608  "The Three Wise Hombres"  (December 24, 1941)

1395-611  "Drums at Dusk"  (December 31, 1941)

1555-769  "The Bullet Brigade"  (January 8, 1943)

1556-770  "Showdown"  (January 11, 1943)        

1652-865  "A Good Woman's Love"  (August 23, 1943)  (supposedly exists)                      

1677-890  "Mills of the Gods"  (October 20, 1943)                

1678-891  "As the Cards Falls"  (October 22, 1943)  (supposedly exists)

1679-892  "Bow to Glory"  (October 25, 1943)  (supposedly exists)

1686-899  "Human Contraband"  (November 10, 1943)

1687-900  "The Heathen Chinese"  (November 12, 1943)  

1689-902  "Four Men from Tokyo"  (November 17, 1943)

1701-914  "Perfectly Legal"  (December 15, 1943)

1710-923  "Wrath of the Storm"  (January 5, 1944) *                      

1712-925  "Tax Thief"  (January 10, 1944) *           

1714-928  "Honest Andy"  (January 14, 1944) *                    

1715-929  "The Murder Kid"  (January 17, 1944) (Received Recording, Will Verify)                    

1716-930  "The Judge's Return"  (January 19, 1944) *                    

1718-932  "With a Star and a Prayer"  (January 24, 1944) *                    

1719-933  "Quicksilver"  (January 26, 1944)

1721-935  "Tamin' and Larnin'"  (January 31, 1944)

1730-944  "Wild Bill Hickok"  (February 21, 1944)

1733-947  "Belle Starr"  (February 28, 1944)

1741-961  "Greater Love Hath No Man"  (March 17, 1944)

1750-970  "Footlights on the Frontier"  (April 7, 1944)

1762-982  "The Devil and Sam Todd"  (May 5, 1944)

1765-985  "Straw Points the Way"  (May 12, 1944)

1766-986  "Teddy Roosevelt"  (May 15, 1944)

1771-991  "Dead Man's Bluff"  (May 26, 1944) *                          

1772-992  "Doctor Good"  (May 29, 1944) *                          

1773-993  "A Bargain's A Bargain"  (May 31, 1944) *                          

1774-994  "Six-Gun Heritage"  (June 2, 1944) *                            

1775-995  "Luke Short"  (June 5, 1944) *                            

1776-996  "Badge of Honor"  (June 7, 1944)

1789-1009  "Old School Sheriff"  (July 7, 1944)

1790-1010  "Duke Henshaw"  (July 10, 1944)

1791-1011  "Eph Wilson's Chicks"  (July 12, 1944)

1792-1012  "A Gentleman From England"  (July 14, 1944)

1798-1018  "Food for the Iron Horse"  (July 28, 1944)

1804-1024  "One in a Thousand"  (August 11, 1944)

1806-1026  "Gunpowder Joe"  (August 16, 1944)

1828-1048  "Conclusion - Part Six"  (October 6, 1944)

1829-1049  "Peppermint"  (October 9, 1944)

1846-1066  "Sabers or Six-Guns"  (November 17, 1944)

1853-1073  "Ambush"  (December 4, 1944)

1855-1075  "Pop's Barometer"  (December 8, 1944)

1857-1077  "The Kid Keeps a Promise"  (December 13, 1944)

1858-1078  "Debt of Honor"  (December 15, 1944)

1864-1084  "Hills of Home"  (December 29, 1944)

1865-1085  "Holster Heritage"  (January 1, 1945)

1904-1130  "The Devil's Pool"  (April 2, 1945)               

1905-1131  "F.O.B. Crime"  (April 4, 1945)

1923-1149  "Rodeo Banker"  (May 18, 1945)

1967-1193  "Arsen"  (August 31, 1945)                      

1968-1194  "Restitution"  (September 3, 1945) *                 

1972-1198  "Guilt for Hire"  (September 12, 1945)

1975-1201  "Camel Brigade: Quicksand"  (September 19, 1945) *               

1976-1202  "Camel Brigade: Deep Water"  (September 21, 1945) *               

1981-1207  "Reform of Luther Gates"  (October 3, 1945) *                      

1984-1209  "The Finger of Death"  (October 10, 1945) *                    

1985-1210  "The Iron Horse"  (October 12, 1945) *                    

1991-1216  "Woodland Peril"  (October 26, 1945) *                    

1992-1217  "The Fifth Condemned Man"  (October 29, 1945) *                    

1993-1218  "Texas Rides Again"  (October 31, 1945) *                    

1994-1219  "Behind the Mask"  (November 2, 1945) *                  

1995-1220  "Auntie"  (November 5, 1945) *                  

1996-1221  "Scarface"  (November 7, 1945) *                  

1997-1222  "Thunder's Mules"  (November 9, 1945) *                  

1998-1223  "Alias, The Lone Ranger"  (November 12, 1945) *                

2006-1231  "Silver"  (November 30, 1945)    

2116-1341  "Rainy Day"  (August 14, 1946)

2130-1355  "Silver Lode"  (September 16, 1946)

2166-1391  "Brave Man"  (December 9, 1946)

2255-1480  "North Junction"  (July 4, 1947)

2263-1488  "Fighting Spirit"  (July 23, 1947)

2317-1542  "Lolita and the Outlaw"  (November 26, 1947)

2325-1550  "Devil's Pass"  (December 15, 1947)

2330-1555  "Determination"  (December 26, 1947)

2600-1825  "Wagons Westward"  (September 16, 1949)

2641-1866  "Character Loan"  (December 21, 1949)

2642-1867  "Masked Lady"  (December 23, 1949)

2644-1869  "Forgery Frameup"  (December 28, 1949)

2645-1870  "Hunter and the Hunted"  (December 30, 1949)


UPDATE: September 1, 2022. Two episodes removed from the list, found and verified existing.


A "Special Birthday Recording" copyrighted on May 17, 1940 (actual broadcast date remains unknown) was registered through the U.S. Copyright Office, but is not the same as the network's May 17, 1940 broadcast.


A special Lone Ranger anniversary program, with an incidental poem by Edgar A. Guest, was broadcast on Saturday, January 23, 1943. This, too, supposedly exists.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

FOUR STAR TELEVISION PRODUCTIONS

You may not be familiar with Four Star Productions but you more than likely saw their logo at the conclusion of numerous television programs including Honey West, Burke's Law, The Rifleman, Wanted; Dead or Alive, The Big Valley, and The Zane Grey Theatre, among others. The production company was co-owned by Dick Powell, David Niven and Charles Boyer. Joel McCrea, who was busy with Tales of the Texas Rangers on radio, backed out of the proposed project and was replaced by Ida Lupino. While she did not own stock in the company, she was considered the fourth star and the reason why the company was referred to as Four Star Productions. (For those who want to jump the gun and assume incorrectly, Lupino was not a stockholder because she was a woman. Being a stockholder meant buying into a percentage of the company as a financial investment and she did not invest money in the operation.)

Inspired by Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz's venture with Desilu Productions, the company was launched by Dick Powell who longed to produce and direct. He saw television as more of an open market for his ambitions than motion-pictures. Originally the concept began on radio with Four Star Playhouse on NBC in the summer of 1949, then ventured to television with the weekly anthology of the same name. While today many of us are familiar with the weekly dramas of The Detectives, The Rogues, The Law and Mr. Jones, and Richard Diamond, Private Detective, he called in favors and offered partial investments from Joan Fontaine and his wife, June Allyson, who of course starred in the The June Allyson Show.

Powell and company was shrewd enough to produce tons of pilots, including Bulldog Drummond, Claudia, The Stubby Kaye Show (a.k.a. Full Speed Ahead), The Judy Canova Show, The Searchers, The Bette Davis Show (a.k.a. The Decorator), Michael ShayneThe Dean Jones Show (a.k.a. Alec Tate), Ensign O'Toole, The Lloyd Bridges ShowThe King and Me and many others. Never wasting budget when pilots were unable to sell, or to exhibition the pilots to a large number of potential sponsors at the same time, Four Star aired those pilots on many of the anthology programs.

The Zane Grey Theater, for example, aired a number of "back door pilots" that ultimately sold to sponsors and became weekly programs of their own. Trackdown, The Rifleman, Black Saddle, Johnny Ringo, Law of the Plainsman, The Westerner, and Stagecoach West were a few that spun off from a one-shot episode on Zane Grey. (Many fans know Steve McQueen's Wanted: Dead or Alive spun off from an episode on Trackdown, and Honey West spun off from an episode of Burke's Law.)

On the Four Star Playhouse anthology, Dick Powell played the role of Willie Dante, owner of a nightclub who found himself caught up in trouble -- usually from shady characters from his past. Powell played the role in more than one episode, but eventually a weekly half-hour series came of those potential pilots. Dante lasted a mere 26 episodes, starring Howard Duff in the lead, and became one of my favorites. People rave about The Rogues but I always recommend Dante for those seeking crime dramas of the 1950s and 1960s that are both obscure and entertaining.

Frank Lovejoy starred in a wonderfully-written radio program, Night Beat, which aired for two years on radio. (Highly recommended, by the way.) Four Star Productions was responsible for a pilot that never sold, adapted from one of the radio scripts. A darn shame but thankfully a similar program came about with Frank Lovejoy on television... Meet McGraw.  

Thankfully, Richard Irvin wrote a fantastic book documenting the history of Four Star Productions, available from Bear Manor Media Publishing. Not only did he cover the formation of the company in exquisite detail, but he documented each and every one of the television programs and details regarding many of those unsold pilots. A few years ago I was going through some trade columns in Hollywood Reporter circa 1961 when I came across a news blurb that Four Star Productions had completed a pilot for The Adventures of Sam Spade, starring Peter Falk in the lead. Sincerely, that has been my "Holy Grail" of television pilots that I really, really want to see. Alas, it has not aired on television nor has it become a bonus extra for any commercial DVD release. Yes, Richard Irvin referenced that pilot. That should demonstrate how thorough the book is. Highly recommended.

Link enclosed for direct purchase.

https://bearmanor-digital.myshopify.com/products/four-star-television-productions-a-history-1952-1989-softcover-edition-by-richard-irvin?_pos=2&_sid=c30a49ee7&_ss=r

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

AL JENNINGS vs. THE LONE RANGER

Al Jennings
Beginning with the radio broadcast of February 14, 1944, a new schedule of Lone Ranger stories was initiated whereby Monday broadcasts were devoted to a historical character and The Lone Ranger’s brush with historical fame, Wednesday broadcasts featured Dan Reid, and Friday broadcasts were general western type of stories. Officially Dan Reid was brought back into the series permanently on Wednesday, February 9, and The Lone Ranger met the famous Wyatt Earp back on the broadcast of January 3, but the new format was made official with the broadcast of February 14. Fans today refer to those Monday broadcasts as part of the “biography” series, with stronger emphasis of The Lone Ranger wearing a mask to suggest he was merely concealing a famous face known to many. During those broadcasts, The Lone Ranger fought shoulder-to-shoulder with Buffalo Bill against renegade whites and Indians. For young listeners, it was The Lone Ranger who helped Wild Bill Hickok tame the town of Deadwood. It was The Lone Ranger who sent a warning to General Custer who led a foolhardy attack on Indian forces. It was these broadcasts more than any other that helped establish the program’s opening catchphrase: “Nowhere in the pages of history can one find a greater champion of justice…” The Lone Ranger even persuaded Pat Garrett to become a special lawman, assigned to track down Billy the Kid. 

The Biography Series eventually came to a close before the end of August 1944, after one of the broadcasts created a legal stir with The Lone Ranger, Inc. Al Jennings, an 80-year-old reformed trainer robber and one-time Wild West bad man, glamorously portrayed in an episode of The Lone Ranger, filed a lawsuit against The Lone Ranger, Inc., seeking damages for the way he was portrayed on the radio broadcast. To everyone’s surprise, including the script writer, Al Jennings was still alive at the time they depicted his criminal exploits on The Lone Ranger.

In 1899, Jennings was sentenced to life in prison for train robbery. Due to the legal efforts of his brother John, his sentence was reduced to five years. He was freed on technicalities in 1902 and received a presidential pardon in 1904 by President Theodore Roosevelt. After writing a number of semi-autobiographical books and stories based on his criminal escapades, Jennings moved to California and worked in the motion picture industry making Westerns. Throughout 1919 and the surrounding months, Jennings took up a professional acting career often portraying himself on screen perpetuating the myth of a “good bandit.” Jennings became a popular speaker, evangelist and writer – his life being serialized in The Saturday Evening Post

Al Jennings starring in his own silent film shorts.
On the evening of August 7, 1944, The Lone Ranger broadcast presented one of the usual weekly biography sketches in which the masked man brushed along a legend from the by-gone era. The Lone Ranger shot a gun out of the hands of an Oklahoma bad man, Al Jennings, who at the time was not only ravaging the countryside with his depredations, but who was in the very act of persuading a teenage boy to join his notorious band of bank and train robbers. When The Lone Ranger appeared on the scene and promptly took over, he unbraided Jennings in a stirring speech in which virtue and morality were given high due, and in which he added the punctuation by shooting the iron out of Jennings’ hand with the characteristic aplomb which only he could muster. But this was almost a costly mistake against The Lone Ranger entity.

As soon as papers were served against The Lone Ranger, Inc., George W. Trendle handed down diction to director Charles Livingstone to cease dramatizing exploits of The Lone Ranger that involved his encounters of famous outlaws and heroic figures. Jennings was the star witness as the trial of his $100,000 defamation suit, which ran two days, in September of 1945. Adding fuel to the fire was the fact that Jennings named the Don Lee Broadcasting Company and the Weber Baking Company (the local sponsor of The Lone Ranger in the area where Jennings lived), as defendants. 

“They made me mad,” said Jennings who, when he took the stand, appeared more like a cracker barrel philosopher than the terror of the West. “They had this Lone Ranger shootin’ a gun out of my hand – and me an expert! You can’t shoot a gun out of a man’s hand, anyway – except in the movies. Not without shooting his hand near off. Who is this Lone Ranger, anyway?” Jennings declared the program made him out like a bank robber, but confessed he never robbed one in his life. His complaint also alleged how the program called him a burglar, and depicted him as inducing a young boy to join his bandit gang, and let the masked Lone Ranger treat him like a common criminal. 

Eleven women and one man – a jury in Superior Judge Robert Scott’s court – sat for more than a week in fascinated silence as Jennings described how he became an evangelist for a time to “clear my conscience” and help others avoid a life of crime. “But I got a little tired of that,” he told Judge Scott, who was also a former minister. “Some of the preachers I found were worse than some of the outlaws, but some, of course, were marvelous.”

To clarify, the breath of the case was “defamation of character” and for Jennings to have won his case, he would have had to establish different rules for different citizens and to set the precedent for publicizing anyone’s life without his permission or consent. At least, this is what his lawyer, R. Ralston Jones, should have advised his client. Instead, Jennings chose to lodge his complaint against the defendants by emphasizing how the program damaged the reputation he built up since he was freed from prison and led a life of aspired morals.

The defendants contended Jennings had no right to damages because he was a real notorious train robber and once the head of a bandit gang. They contended he had publicized his life so fully that he had no privacy left regarding the matter. It was that very book that was consulted as reference for The Lone Ranger broadcast, in which the author described a similar episode in which a 17-year-old boy asked to join the gang and finally was admitted.

On the afternoon of October 2, 1945, a verdict was handed down and Al Jennings lost his suit. A jury in Superior Judge Robert H. Scott’s court returned a 10 to 2 verdict against the reformed train robber. The verdict upheld Defense Attorney Clarence B. Runkle’s contention that Jennings’ career was not private, because Jennings himself frequently wrote details of his deeds and glorified his crimes in a series of motion picture film shorts. 

The main reason for their decision, one jury member later explained to a newspaper reporter, was that Jennings wittingly or otherwise had spent the week on the stand convincing the jury that no one could defame his reputation. “Gentlemen,” he said on one occasion after describing a particularly violent gun battle in his hectic career. “I regret to say I had to kill three of those men!” The jurors gasped. “But would I encourage a boy to embark on a life of crime?” hastily countered the ex-bad man. “No!” The California court decided that Al Jennings was not entitled to his $100,000, and the jury’s esteem of Jennings had not suffered because of the disputed radio broadcast.