Friday, January 15, 2016

The "Lost" Episodes of THE SHADOW Radio Program

Orson Welles as The Shadow in a publicity still.
One of the most popular questions I received from fans of The Shadow is why there are not more episodes of The Shadow in collector hands today? Radio Spirits has done a tremendous service by going to the expense of securing non-circulating episodes so they could be made available on CD (and I recommend you buy those sets today to ensure you have the best sound quality and support a company that introduced us to new adventures that were not around for more than 60 years).

There are two answers for that question. In late 1938, trade papers reported Charles Michelson, of Michelson & Sternberg, exporters, purchasing 26 weeks of transcription records of The Shadow, having concluded the discs perhaps could be sold to stations across the country — especially outside Blue Coal territory — through an exclusive contract with Ruthrauff & Ryan and Street & Smith. These were the 15-minute MacGregor & Sollie discs created in 1935. Michelson snagged himself a contract with the initial intention of sending the recordings to Australia. He may have succeeded, but only for a brief time. The Australian government banned the importation of transcriptions in a move to protect the nation’s own actors and build an Australian industry. Street & Smith felt it was an opportunity to promote its magazine, but found that the discs were given limited distribution — Kansas City and Los Angeles. Michelson had also secured a contract granting him permission to syndicate the half-hour Shadow broadcasts nationwide, with a number of strict provisions. As early as September 1939, Michelson launched a campaign to sell The Shadow to any station that expressed interest, provided it was not competing in Blue Coal territory.

Label on a Michelson Shadow disc.
As a result of Michelson, most of the early episodes of The Shadow exist today. Michelson recorded the shows at his expense, then promoted the discs available in syndication packages for local radio stations (outside Blue Coal territory) to broadcast the series. Blue Coal territory was defined “officially” as the following: The New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, Wisconsin; Illinois - south to a line running due east and west just below Springfield; Indiana - south to a line running due east and west just below Indianapolis; Ohio - south to a line running due east and west just below Columbus; Virginia - south to a line due east and west just below Richmond; Province of Ontario, Canada, and the city of Montreal.

If you were to look in the January 1943 issue of Shadow Comics, you would find a listing of radio stations across the country and their respective sponsors.

Bill Bakers           WQAM           Miami, Fla.
The City Consumers Company           WPAD           Paducah, Ky.
The Claussen Baking Company           WCSC           Charleston, S.C.
The Fulton Loan Service           WMBR           Jacksonville, Fla.
Harold’s Club           KOH           Reno, Nev.
Kaufmann’s Department Store           WMBS           Uniontown, Pa.
Mitchell Feed & Grain           KGFL           Roswell, N.M.
Butterworth Furniture           WRVA           Richmond, Va.

According to a summer 1942 advertisement, Michelson promoted 156 episodes ready and available for the choosing. This would mean that Michelson was offering every Shadow broadcast since the Orson Welles premiere in September 1937.

Notice the exaggeration of episode numbers in this advertisement!
There was the intention of 52 episodes of The Avenger, but only 26 were made.

Michelson’s central office was located at 67 West 44th Street in New York City, and his transcriptions were cut and pressed within driving distance, helping to keep the cost factor down. His fee (the unit cost) to radio stations for a single transcription disc was $10 to $50, based on the individual city, market size and station size. The stations in turn sought out local sponsors. Sponsors had to be approved by Michelson, who in turn, had to seek clearance from Ruthrauff & Ryan, to ensure the products sponsored on the local networks did not compete with D.L.&W. Bread companies, soda pop, cleaners and department stores were prime sponsors. Michelson also contracted the local stations to limit sponsorship to two advertisers with noncompeting products in noncompeting markets to prevent possible lawsuits. This meant it was impossible for three sponsors to carry the same program.

During the 1944-45 season, for another example, the following stations were airing The Shadow via transcription discs and their respective sponsors.

WJAC           Johnstown, Pennsylvania           Penn Furniture
WFBG           Altoona, Pennsylvania           Penn Furniture
WRRN           Warren, Ohio           Warren Transportation
WAIR           Winston-Salem, North Carolina           Brown, Roger, Dixson Co.
WSFA           Montgomery, Alabama           Young’s Milk & Ice Cream
WSLS           Roanoke, Virginia           Rainbow Bread Co.
KDB           Santa Barbara, California           Johnson Cafeteria
KTSM           El Paso, Texas           
(sponsor unknown, I couldn't find any ads in newspapers on microfilm.)
WLBJ           Bowling Green, Kentucky           Borden’s Pure Milk Co.
WSIX           Nashville, Tennessee           H.J. Grimes Co.
WTMA           Charleston, South Carolina           Emily of Charleston
WRAL           Raleigh, North Carolina           Brawley Jewelry Store
KTAR           Phoenix, Arizona           Thomas Brothers
KVOE           Santa Ana, California           Guaranty Chevrolet Co.
WPAD           Paducah Broadcasting, Kentucky           City Consumers Co.
WFTL           Ft. Lauderdale, Florida           Johnnie & Mack Body Shop
WGRC           Louisville, Kentucky           Red Rock Bottling Co.
WHB           Kansas City, Missouri           Cook’s Paints
WPDQ           Jacksonville, Florida           Modern Construction Co.
WKBV           Richmond, Indiana           Lawson Jewelers

Now the first of two answers to that question. Michelson ceased offering The Shadow to regional networks by 1948. His contract with Street & Smith was not renewed. It was Michelson who recorded every episode from September of 1937 to April 1944 for transcription — the reason collectors today have many existing Shadow recordings to enjoy. Beginning with the 1944-45 season, Shadow transcriptions were not made; the network show covered so much of the nation that it was not economical to continue transcribing it for the few territories that had not yet broadcast The Shadow and could begin with the 1939-1944 transcriptions. 

By 1946 and 1947, many territories that had not heard the early episodes were being offered them, so those areas would still be introduced to new adventures — even if they were not The Shadow of 1947. This meant folks in Michigan and Kansas could have been hearing Orson Welles Shadow dramas nine years after he was no longer The Shadow! These were Michelson’s final attempts to cash in on the elusive crime fighter. He would continue to market The Avenger, a syndicated transcription series that many consider a bland rip-off of The Shadow, until 1953.

The summer of 1950 marked a first for The Shadow. Rather than broadcast the series live, in late July, producer/director Ingram and the entire cast began recording the episodes on weekdays for playback on Sunday afternoon. This was not done for every episode, but frequently enough to give the actors a breather on the Sabbath. The policy of prerecording the episodes became more frequent as the months passed. The Mutual Broadcasting System had recently begun taping programs for later playback, including One Man’s Family and I Love A Mystery. When it was baseball season, many stations aired The Shadow later on Sunday evenings at a more convenient time slot, or on other calendar days. Those stations individually recorded the program live off the network feed either onto disc or tape (and one reason why we have a couple episodes from the 1950s in circulation). 

Nick Carter broadcast in Australia.
Photo courtesy of Ian Grieve.
Mutual's prevailing thought was that with the shows recorded on magnetic tape, the network could save money by erasing and using the same reels of tape for the next episode. This, coupled with the lack of electrical transcriptions made by Michelson and other third parties, resulted in the lack of extant episodes from this era. This is the accepted, but unsubstantiated, theory as to why there are barely any network versions of The Shadow available in recorded form dated from 1950 to 1954. By the time episodes were recorded on tape, the productions had moved from the Longacre Theater to a sound studio where a public audience was no longer admitted. Both Gertrude Warner and Bret Morrison recalled the final years of The Shadow being produced without rehearsal time. Mistakes were simply edited out as the tape was made ready for broadcast, but a number of continuity errors went overlooked and what prestige the show had during the early forties was pretty much gone. The Shadow simply became part of the Sunday afternoon lineup of detective yarns that had difficulty selling sponsorship for a majority of the time.

Among the holy grails of old time radio broadcasts are the “lost” episodes of The Shadow. Despite the broadcast of more than 200 episodes by Mutual from 1950 to 1954, less than half-a-dozen exist in recorded form from this time period. The fact that many of The Shadow programs were taped for later playback and Mutual’s concern for reusing tape to save money, it remains unlikely that most of those episodes are going to be found. (It's the same reason why most of the I Love A Mystery recordings from the Mutual run (1949-1952) do not exist in recorded form.) On October 22, 1951, Street & Smith granted permission to the Armed Forces Information and Education Division, through the Armed Forces Radio Service, for overseas broadcast of The Shadow recordings from 1951 through 1952, with the stipulation: “It is further understood that these tapes will ultimately be destroyed and the permission herewith granted is contingent upon that requirement.” Collectors today can only hope the Armed Forces did not destroy the recordings.

What follows is a selection of "lost" radio broadcasts of The Shadow. Plot descriptions originate from the archival scripts housed at the Street & Smith Archives at Syracuse University. Since the recordings to not exist, I did not see any harm in revealing the solutions to each crime. I hope you enjoy!

Broadcast June 29, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU31399, July 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-731, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Judith and David Bublick.
Plot: In response to a plea from Betty Fuller, Margot and Lamont go to see Amos Saunders, her aunt’s fiancĂ©. They find a shabby room and a body — the corpse of young Amos neatly garroted with a strand of wire. Aged screen actress Katherine Fuller claims to receive visitations from the spirit world — from her late fiancĂ©. Lamont investigates and soon discovers Katherine’s former lover, actor Eugene Delacort, is assisting a con artist named Tony, who plays the role of Drishna the spiritualist. Making Katherine believe that Amos is visiting her from the great beyond, the con men trick the aged actress into withdrawing half of her fortune until The Shadow puts in an appearance as another voice from the great beyond to prevent the woman from being fleeced and to ensure the crooks join the evil spirits who have gone before them. 

Episode #576 “THE DEADLY DOLL”
Recorded June 3, 1952. Broadcast July 6, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU32683, October 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-746, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Edward J. Adamson.
Plot: An unwelcome visit to a voodoo ritual has resulted in a strange incident in the home of Ann and Walter Bender. Ann suffers nightmares of Papa Legba, voodoo practitioner from the Caribbean Islands where the couple vacationed and spied on a rare voodoo ritual. Believing she is the victim of simple delusional hysteria, Lamont investigates and discovers that some of her delusions are lifelike — Ann disappears and a voodoo doll is found on the Bender doorstep, predicting a brutal death for the missing woman. An auto accident takes Ann’s life, followed by the death of her husband by impalement. Henri Jacmel, the last suspect in the case, is shot in the heart before he can reveal what he knows to The Shadow. Answering the door, Margot discovers Ann is alive and well — with knife in hand. She faked her death and was working with Jacmel to get rid of her husband so they could run away together — until she learned her lover was about to talk. Preventing Margot from being the next victim in Ann’s scheme, The Shadow arranges for Weston to take Ann into custody. 

Episode #577 “THE PLANS OF DEATH”
Recorded June 10, 1952. Broadcast July 13, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU32681, October 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-747, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Jonathan Lewis (a pseudonym of Alicia Goldfarb).
Plot: Professor North and his daughter Cleo vanish under strange circumstances. Finding the unconscious body of Dr. Peter Miklis in the road, Lamont and Margot revive the famed doctor to learn the horribl truth — he was the victim of a brutal beating and the theft of valuable papers. Miklis worked on a government secret weapons project that would automatically defend the country’s coastline. Professor North and the woman posing as his daughter Cleo used a front of respectability to steal the plans, and Miklis overheard them discuss a midnight rendezvous with a foreign agent named Argus. Weston, Lamont, Margot and state and federal authorities begin a frantic search for the pair. North is found dying from a gunshot wound — a double-cross by Cleo, who ran off with the plans. Weston attempts to place her under arrest, but finds the girl dead and the plans missing. Learning the location of the secret rendezvous from the dying North, Lamont sets out as The Shadow to meet Argus and Miklis. Miklis worshipped Cleo but because she betrayed him, he killed her. Figuring he’s finished professionally because no one would ever believe he wasn’t in on the plot from the start, Miklis decided to kill the woman and sell the plans for a half million dollars. The Shadow interferes, ensuring the plans do not fall into the hands of an enemy agent. 

Recorded July 17, 1952. Broadcast July 20, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU31982, September 19, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-740, July 22, 1980.
Script written by J.G. Leighton (a pseudonym of John Cole).
Plot: The fabulous Emerald Scarab was stolen in a sensational daylight robbery. During the theft, the leader of the gang, Nick, was seriously wounded. Knowing full well that the famed jewel cannot be sold in its present condition, Arty and Eve attempt to find Uncle Abe, a man known for his superb cutting skills. Severely wounded, Nick is disposed of out the door of the getaway car, leaving the take to be split two ways instead of three. Nick makes his way to a doctor’s office. The Emerald Scarab supposedly has a curse behind it — anyone who takes it unlawfully supposedly dies a violent death. Bandaged and bleeding severely, Nick takes on the curse to seek revenge against the cutthroats by first finding and strangling Arty to death, then setting his sights for Eve. Discovering the methods of the thieves, Lamont ventures to the country hideout of the jewel thieves to rescue Eve and reveals the wounded dead is none other than the doctor that attempted to save Nick, who really died on the operating table. The doctor was attempting to gain sole possession of the Emerald Scarab. The Shadow knocks out the murderer and forces Eve to remain where she is until the police arrive. 

Blooper! Commissioner Weston informs Lamont Cranston that one of the crooks is probably Arty Wrench, ex-mobster chauffeur and general hood. But later in the episode, Lamont visits a cheap hotel in search of the crooks, and calls out for Arty Krebs when he should have called out Arty Wrench. Comparing two versions of the script, it appears Arty Krebs was the original name in the first draft, changed to Wrench in the final draft but the change was overlooked on one page.

Trivia, etc. This episode was a rewrite of a former Shadow broadcast titled “Revenge Is — Murder!” (September 19, 1948). The plot and dialogue remained the same but the names of the fictional characters were changed and the scarab was originally the Calvour Diamond. 

Recorded June 24, 1952. Broadcast July 27, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU31983, September 19, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-741, July 22, 1980.
Script written by J.G. Leighton (a pseudonym of John Cole).
Plot: Some thirty years ago, Greystone Inn was the scene of a rather bloody mystery. Edmund Keys went berserk with a knife and brutally murdered the two guests, then hanged himself from a rafter — or so it was believed. His body was never found — only a piece of frayed rope hanging from the beam. Answering a plea from friend Althea Blake, Margot and Lamont drive out of town to investigate the frightening occurrences. Two people were found murdered recently and the madman Keys has returned to seek a treasure hidden at the inn, left over a hundred years ago by a privateering sea captain who made Greystone his home during his declining years ashore. In a game of cat and mouse, Lamont is knocked unconscious from behind, Margot is forced to push the madman down a flight of stairs, and Althea is tortured by the madman’s laughs through the hallways. In desperation, Althea pulls a gun on Keys, forcing him to reveal a treasure map. Moments after she shoots the madman, the gun is knocked out of her hand by The Shadow, who reveals the hidden treasure — worthless eighteenth century Scrip dollars issued by the pirate government of a city on the Barbary Coast. 

Trivia, etc. The title above originates from the cover script. The announcer informs the listeners that the title of the drama is “The Case of the Murdering Host.” 

Recorded July 1, 1952. Broadcast August 3, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU32680, December 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-748, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Edward J. Adamson.
Plot: Abigail Warren, accused of witchcraft and burned at the stake two hundred years ago, has spanned time and mortality to seek revenge against the ancestors of those responsible for her death. Julia Warren, a direct ancestor of the witch, is not of sound mind and claims Abigail is haunting her. The caretaker of the local cemetery and Mr. Harrow, the town historian, are found murdered. Like a shadow in the night, the witch’s voice filled with cackling laughter is heard as each of her victims is charred to death — their remains partially hidden so they can be found later. Hiding with Julia, Margot discovers the girl is mentally disturbed and like Jekyll and Hyde, Abigail becomes the dominating character. The Shadow arrives before Margot can become the next victim. Lamont later explains to Margot that Julia suffered a breakdown following her father’s death and gradually sought revenge on the people responsible…and in her mind became Abigail. 

Trivia, etc. This episode was a rewrite of an Inner Sanctum Mystery titled “The Vengeful Corpse,” scripted by Ed Adamson, initially broadcast September 12, 1949. (A recording of that Inner Sanctum episode exists in recorded form.) The story was basically the same as The Shadow production and featured a young couple that witnessed a woman dressed in black roaming the countryside at night. The mysterious woman was a vengeful ancestor once accused of being a witch and burned at the stake — and her first murder involved the caretaker of the cemetery and falling victim, she was placed in her grave. 

Recorded July 8, 1952. Broadcast August 10, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU31930, September 17, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-732, July 22, 1980.
Script written by James Erthein.
Plot: High up in an alpine village bordering the Iron Curtain, two foreign agents named Alganov and Barsky commit a brutal murder trying to learn the whereabouts of a timepiece that supposedly contains hidden microfilm. After stumbling upon two murders, Lamont and Margot are forced to cancel their skiing trip to investigate the circumstances of the deaths that resulted from broken necks administered by Barsky’s strong hands. After tricking the town clockmaker, Barsky takes the timepiece to his hotel room to develop the hidden microfilm. The Shadow injects a sense of fear into the enemy agent, learning that the microfilm contains a stolen formula — a perfected slave virus that makes people helpless. But the microfilm is blank, thanks to the suspicious clockmaker. The Shadow tricks Barsky into running back to his accomplice; he makes Alganov believe that he and Barsky plan to get rid of him so they can split the sale of the formula to the other side. An angry Alganov chases Barsky who makes an attempt to return to his country and falls into the hands of the approaching border guards, who have been tipped off about the enemy agents. Dying from a bullet wound from Alganov’s gun, the clockmaker reveals to The Shadow where he hid the film containing the formula so it can be delivered into safe hands. 

Episode #582 “THE MAD-DOG MURDERS”
Recorded July 15, 1952. Broadcast August 17, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU32679, December 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-749, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Jerry McGill.
Plot: Lamont and Margot are invited to a weekend party at the estate of Leo and Diana Tyler — by Margot’s old friend, Diana’s secretary/companion, Ann Webster. Diana fears her life is in danger ever since she was brutally attacked and handicapped by a pet lion cub. Sensing hate stalking through the house, Lamont investigates the poisoning of their Great Dane and questions Leo’s obsession for the grown lion that now occupies the secure cage in the backyard. When Joe Morgan, an ex-con who was hired as the Tyler chauffeur, is shot by a high-powered rifle and it is made clear that both Leo and Diana are lying and covering up too many cross-currents of hate and greed, The Shadow takes a hand in the murderous game. While Margot sets out by car to fetch the police because the telephone lines are cut, The Shadow discovers Morgan was blackmailing the Tylers. When Leo intends to release the lion so his wife and the invisible avenger will face their doom, The Shadow knocks him unconscious. Diana reveals her true motive — jealousy. She falsely suspected her husband was having an affair with Ann Webster. Diana attempts to set the wild beast loose but, before she can do so, confesses to shooting the blackmailer with a rifle and then suffers a heart attack. 

Trivia, etc. The sound of the lion was supplied via recording. 

Recorded July 22, 1952. Broadcast August 24, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU31931, September 17, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-733, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Judith and David Bublick.
Plot: Sensational baseball star Roy Collins has been kidnapped by Professor Nordin and his assistant Frank. Using a new anti-coagulant drug called Compound 23, Nordin intends to transplant the living brain of a Nobel Prize winner in physics and chemistry into a young, powerful body. Having succeeded in transplanting the brain and nervous system from one dog to another, the mad scientist believes he can do the same with humans. However, Frank picked dogs off the street instead of buying them as he was told, plaguing the police department with a number of “lost dog” phone calls and a tip that gives Lamont what he needs to start the investigation. Energetic reporter Russ Miller discovers the whereabouts of the ballplayer, but is shot before telling Lamont over the phone what he learned. With few clues at his disposal, The Shadow tracks down the location of the laboratory and, discouraging the mad scientist from beginning his transplants, tricks him into seeking the source of the unseen voice. Slipping on the floor, Professor Nordin falls onto the very instruments he was about to use, killing him. 

Episode #584 “DEATH BY PROXY”
Recorded July 29, 1952. Broadcast August 31, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU32678, December 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-750, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Stedman Coles.
Plot: On a dark and stormy night, Lamont and Margot help Ruth Denby and her aunt who are stranded along the side of the road. Ruth’s husband Phil went to the old Moorehead Estate to phone for help but never came back. The unsolved murders of John and Lucy Moorehead ten years ago have earned the house a reputation of being haunted. In the cobweb-infested cellar of the old, abandoned home, Lamont is knocked unconscious and a dead body is found. When he wakes, Margot gives him the bad news — Ruth and her aunt have disappeared. Weston gets involved in the investigation and explains to Lamont that Phil Denby embezzled seventy thousand dollars from the bank where he works and hasn’t been seen since. Returning to the estate, Lamont and Margot investigate the secret passageways and find Peter Hill holding a gun on them. Peter was the caretaker for the Mooreheads. His mind snapped from his jealous love of the late Lucy Moorehead. Peter is reliving a murder he committed a decade ago — which was a flaw in Phil Denby’s plan, since he intended to use the house as a hiding place for the money he embezzled. The body was that of a hitchhiker used as an attempt to throw the police off while Phil and Ruth made plans to leave with the money. The Shadow appears and tricks Phil into wasting all his bullets so the three of them, now unarmed, can be turned over to the police. 

Episode #585 “THE ELEVENTH HOUR”
Recorded September 2, 1952. Broadcast September 7, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU32677, December 10, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-751, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Jerry McGill.
Plot: In the death house at the state prison, Johnny Blake will be executed for the murder of policeman William Logan. Lamont suspects Johnny is the victim of a dirty frame-up that may or may not involve his wife’s brother, Joe Turner. With only hours before the scheduled execution, Lamont sets out to prove that someone else was wearing Johnny’s hat and coat and used his gun for the crime. Aware that Monk Slade and his pool hall gang provided the alibi for Joe Turner, Lamont applies psychological pressure to force a confession from the strong-arm pug. Slade doesn’t frighten easily, but when he attempts to flee from The Shadow, he jumps clear before wrecking his car and breaks his back from the fall. Conscious long enough to confess, Slade admits he committed the murder and used Joe as his alibi — not vice versa as the police assumed. Taken into custody for being an accessory to murder, Joe pleads with the cops to provide protection for his sister before naming the members of the pool hall gang. 

Trivia, etc. This episode was originally slated for broadcast on August 17 with a recording date of July 15. 

Recorded September 9, 1952. Broadcast September 14, 1952
Copyright Registered in U.S. Copyright Office, #DU31984, September 19, 1952.
Renewal Copyright Registration #RE63-742, July 22, 1980.
Script written by Max Ehrlich.
Plot: Over a hundred years ago, Chief Justice Crane, who built Hightower, burned the famous witch, Isabella Whitburn. They say she stole a treasure chest he owned and hid it somewhere in the woods among the hemlocks. Crane oversaw her execution — she was burned at the stake on Roodmas Day, the witches’ Sabbath. John Crane, an old friend and schoolmate, phones Lamont from Hightower Hall near Salem, Massachusetts, pleading for help. His mother disappeared and the whole family is terrified since hearing cackling in the woods near the house. When Lamont and Margot arrive, they find John Crane dead — a spike driven deep into his heart. Before Margot can phone the police, Paula Crane is found dead, killed in the same manner. After examining the clues, Lamont solves the mystery by confronting Bruce Lodge. Lodge took advantage of the legend and murdered his family one by one under the guise of the witch, hoping to divert suspicion to the gardener. Having found the hidden treasure of sovereigns and guineas, he would be the sole heir of Hightower Hall. Tricking Lodge into shooting into the air so the arriving police would know his location, The Shadow laughs, knowing the murderous fiend will face death more mercifully than his victims.

1 comment:

Jeff said...

Wikipedia makes reference to groups that have redone some missing episodes. Anyone know anything about these?

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